GW 501516 (Cardarine) is a compound that acts as a PPARδ modulator. It is often grouped with sarms when it is discussed and sold on research sites but it would fall under a different category scientifically. It is often researched together with other sarms and various research products, thus the grouping and association amongst researchers. Pre-clinical studies determined that GW 501516 activates AMP-activated protein kinase and stimulates glucose uptake in skeletal muscle tissue as well as demonstrating capabilities to reverse metabolic abnormalities in obese subjects with pre-diabetic metabolic syndrome, most likely by stimulating fatty acid oxidation. It has been proposed as a potential treatment for obesity and related conditions as the combination has been shown to significantly increase exercise endurance in animal studies.

In studies conducted on rats, the binding of GW 501516 to PPARδ recruits the coactivator PGC-1a. The PPARδ/coactivator complex then in turn regulates the expression of proteins involved in energy expenditure. Furthermore, in rats treated with GW 501516, there was increased fatty acid metabolism in skeletal muscle and protection against diet-induced obesity. In obese rhesus monkeys, GW 501516 increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and lowered very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL). The mechanism by which PPARδ agonists increase HDL appears to be a result of increased expression of the cholesterol transporter ABCA1.

Main research uses:
The following are anecdotal analysis that have been determined over time by researchers on rats to find other benefits with GW 501516. The main conclusion drawn by researchers from pre-clinical studies is the endurance benefit observed in mice. The compound itself was banned by the WADA and the NCAA due to the apparent advantages it could provide, which could potentially validate the findings or it could be precautionary on their part. Mice have shown to have quite drastic endurance increases.

The next main finding is that of fat loss. Pre-clinical studies made by researchers have found a strong capability in rats for fat loss and metabolism increases over short periods of time. The pre-clinical studies are often conducted between 4-12 weeks on rats with differing doses for testing. These are all accessible online on various websites.
One other substantial pre-clinical finding on rats is the ability to lower LDL (bad cholesterol), raise good cholesterol (HDL) as well as lowering blood pressure. These are all pre-clinical and anecdotal findings that are quite prevalent throughout the internet.